Welcome to our Website! Here the interested expert and other public have an access to
what was thus far an exclusive domain of a few dedicated specialists. The specialized
software tool for a thermodynamic calculations of fossil fuel fired boilers has been
developed. It is based on the new theoretical findings on heat transfer in boilers with
proven +/-2% uncertainty (see Underlying theory tag for more explanation). It can be
applied to carry out tasks like these:
- HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN BOILER OF ANY DESIGN AND ANY SIZE FIRED
WITH ANY FOSSIL FUEL OR EXHAUST GAS (WASTE HEAT RECOVERY BOILER)
FOR ANY OPERATING CONDITIONS (PRESSURE / WATER TEMP., COMBUSTION
AIR TEMP., EXCESS AIR / REST OXYGEN, FLUE GAS RECIRCULATION ETC.).
- BOILER DESIGN OPTIMIZATION.
The software also accepts mixture of two solid fuels as found in coal coal fired power
plants where biomass or waste derived fuel, RDF is cofired.
There is no limitation in boiler size, which means also power plant boilers can also be
handled irrespective from their size.
The software is simple to use and a person skilled in the art gets along with it in a single
go. A great care has been taken to make its use simple and straightforward and the
examples are given (see side menu), which are actually complete instructions for the user.
The software calculates a heat transfer in fossil fuel (oil, gas, biomass, waste derived fuel)
fired fire-tube and water-tube steam, hot water and waste heat boilers of arbitrary
geometry operated at arbitrary operating conditions with pressure up to 180 bar / 2610 psi
and combustion air temperature of up to 400°C/750 F and higher. Version for pressure up
to 400 bar / 5800 psi is in final stage of development (supercritical boilers)
The software calculates steam superheater, reheater and economizer and determines
the optimum size of these for the given conditions (see sample calculations).
Every boiler consists of one or more segments. Software can accept up to 7 sections such
as furnace (with or without rear turnaround chamber), one two or three sets of tubes (as
found in 2-pass, 3-pass and 4-pass boilers) with turnaround channel between the tube sets
and exit channel and calculates conditions in each segment. The segments can be
combined and by that next to every known boiler design can be handled (for instance 3-
pass boiler consists of furnace, internal turnaround chamber, first tube set, front turnaround
channel, second tube set and exit channel). Exception are a few special design cases sold
in small numbers for which dedicated proprietary procedures were developed. A list of boiler
designs the software can handle is shown here.
Heat transfer medium, a liquid can be following (more can be added as needed):
- Rankine cycle liquid.
Input and output values can be either in Metric or English units.
During data entry process screenshots are saved to the disk giving the user a footage of
the calculation process (files are deleted when software starts or re-starts; hence if user
intents to keep these files he or she shall relocate them prior restarting the software or
returning to start screen by pressing Esc twice when in Final menu).
Boiler design is trial & error process, which this software helps to accomplish faster, with
less effort and with higher accuracy.
Discrepancy sources between measured and calculated values
There are always differences between calculated and actual values. The discrepancies are
of an operational (fouling, scaling on gas and water side) and of mathematical nature (heat
transfer equations are always derived from experiments). In general, for new and well
maintained boilers the discrepancy to actual values is between 1-2% (boiler output, steam
Impact of fouling & scalling
The software assumes clean surfaces in the boiler as appearing during commissioning
process. Over time boiler performance becomes affected by fouling, soot and scale
deposits. Its magnitude depends on fuel, operating conditions etc..
Boilers which cool down the flue gases below the water dew point are so called condensing
boilers. In best case the condensation rate will not exceed 40%. In case of gaseous fuel this
would correspond to a maximum 4-5 percentage points efficiency increase (half of that in
case of solid and liquid fuels). Since the condensation rate can not be accurately predicted,
maximum efficiency increase is known and condensing boilers are of the proprietary
designs, those boilers are not covered with this software. When the water vapor dew point in
flue gases is reached an alert about the impending condensation is issued, though.